curving, zigzagging marks are
writing-like scribbles, beginning
‘around the age of three years when
children notice and imitate adults’
linear arrangements of writing that
are similar to their own scribbles’
(Worthington and van Oers 2015;
also added some vertical marks
(lower left) and a circle, both
separate graphic symbols ‘midpoint
between graphic symbols and writing
signs’ (Machón 2013: 322).
read his shopping list as ‘‘I’m
going shopping to get sausages,
beans and peas’.